Many physicists are passionate about the existence of Supersymmetry and Superpartners.

There are, according to the theory of supersymmetry, MANY kinds of matter which cannot be seen but they may exist and these particles are called "superpartners." These particles have never been seen directly in spite of all of the efforts by particle physicists to detect them. With the Large Hadron Collider there is the hope that supersymmetry will be detected.

Built at a cost of billions of dollars, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva, Switzerland, which in collaboration with hundreds of universities and laboratories world-wide has the potential to detect new particles and create micro black holes. It is situated in the Alps, 570 feet under-ground at the Swiss-French border.

The Large Hadron Collider is enormous. It is 27 kilometers (17 miles) in circumference and contains 10,000 ultra-powerful large magnets to repel particles to speeds approaching nature's speed limit - the speed of light. (The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator.)

When beams of protons smash into each other there is so much energy compressed into a tiny space that formerly unknown matter is being created, even if only momentarily --- like it was at the time of origin of the cosmos. It may even result in micro-black holes very much like the primordial black holes created during the Big Bang.

"Two streams of protons, traveling in opposite directions at about 99.999999 percent of the speed of light, will collide head on. Each collision will contain up to 14 trillion electron volts, or 14 thousand giga-electron volts, of energy. So far, the most energetic collisions studied at a particle accelerator, at the Tevatron at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, have had less than two thousand giga-electron volts. The Tevatron is an impression machine, the the LHC is a big step forward," says Dan Hooper, in Dark Cosmos in Search of Our Universe's Mission Mass and Energy - (2006 - Smithsonian Books) Dan is Associate Scientist in the Theoretical Astrophysics Group at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago.

Dan writes: "For more than 30 years, physicists have been studying a class of theories known as supersymmetry. These theories postulate that the two types of particles found in our universe (bosons and fermions) cannot exist without each other. According to supersymmetry, for each type of fermion which exists, there must also exist a boson with many of the same properties - known as its superpartner...If supersymmetric were to be discovered, it would be perhaps the biggest discovery in physics since anti-matter was confirmed to exist in 1932... In many supersymmetric theories, the lightest superpartner particle is stable and weakly interacting, making it a good candidate for the dark matter of our universe. In particular, the lightest of four particles known as neutralinos is a very promising possibility." (Dan Hooper)

Will superpartner particles appear as new supersymmetry particles and annihilate other matter in the universe? Will these black holes suck us all into them? Will the Earth cease to exist? What effect will the LHC have on our Solar System - on our Universe?

99.9% of all the species that ever lived on Earth are now extinct. We are in the Holocene epoch often referred to as the 6th major extinction period for life on planet Earth.

It Can Happen Tomorrow or in 1,000 years or TODAY!

Mass extinction are evolutionary opportunities by eliminating dominate species. We are currently the dominate species on Earth. It has been suggested that we probably owe our species dominance to the last major mass extinction, the K/T event (at the end of the K-T or Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary) that wiped out dinosaurs and open up a nitch for small mammals to become bigger and to become diversified which led ultimately to our species and its overuse of resources and disregard for the many other species which have become extinct because of our maladroit use and miss-use of the power we have wielded against the environment. I believe in spite of any attempt we make now to correct these mistakes, it is too late to alter our destiny. We are quickly approaching a cataclysmic end not just for ourselves but as many other species as we can take with us.

When the dinosaurs went extinct, they gave way for the little hairy warm blooded creatures to evolve into dominance - without which we might not be here now. This was actually the fifth mass extinction event on earth. We lost a lot during that extinction period - because nothing happens exactly overnight - with about 70 per cent of the species which lived on earth go out of existence. This happened about 60 million years ago and was caused by an asteroid impact (per carbon dating, etc)

The worst extinction event was the 3rd Extinction, referred to as the "Great Dying" event - 250 million-year-old catastrophe that wiped out 90 percent of the ocean species and 70 percent of the land species in what has been called biggest mass extinction in Earth's history. There are various estimates for the number of mass extinctions in the last 540 million years, ranging from as few as five to more than twenty discrete major extinctions.

There are limits on resources and a constant competition for them. Greed and irresponsibility is built-in to human behavior. Eventually everything we influence will become extinct. Some faster than others.

Just when we think we may begin to really enjoy our lives or should - or at least we begin to partially figure it all out and we plan for a better conclusion, SHIT HAPPENS and what was isn't. Plans are something someone else makes. Happiness is as illusory as life is ephemeral. Our lives are swift moments riding a wave of gravity curving space-time.

Accretion of the Earth

There are "Black Holes"
which could swallow the Earth
and there are "Gamma Rays"
(and "Solar Flares")
headed right at us!

There is a black hole traveling in our Milky Way Galaxy at four times faster than any stars around it, an event invisible yet there is ample evidence of it's existence and it is approaching our corner of the Galaxy. It is the result of a Supernova - the death of an exploding star. There are always a lot of these exploding supernovaes spewing death rays and heavy matter across the universe and becoming black holes. And to reiterate, this one is about 6,000 light years away and headed this way (and like this one will be found moving fast through the plane of our galaxy.

Some of the critics of the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are worried about a Black Hole (created as a micro-black hole in the LHC which would grow by accretion until it might even swallow up the Earth - or melt our Solar System - and it has even been suggested, we don't really know enough to be speculating about something like this at all, therefore we should not be doing the experiments at all.

We know so little about the consequences of smashing particles at the speed limit of light - not much more than we have learned from studying Black Holes which accrete at the speed of light with enough energy to compress stars and planets into it's void and what we have learned is speculative at best and what we know about what will not happen is not one whole hell of a lot.

If we ask a mathematician, he/she might say (and this might be more to the heart of the question):

Given an infinitely large universe that is more or less homogeneous with lots of stuff in it, like the part of the universe we can see with rockets and satelites with telescopes, then pretty much anything that's remotely possible, that could conceivably be the result of smashing together particles at the speed limit of the universe and anything that is even remotely possible is possible and will happen somewhere.

We don't with full confidence know if a man-made event might even accrete the universe and recycle it into another universe - and our "cyclic" universe may be part of a multiverse of infinite universes.

This would not be the first time the Earth accreted and absorbed everthing around it: "The Earth took 30 to 40 million years to accrete from smaller 'planetesimals'. Many of these planetesimals had metallic iron cores and during growth of the Earth this metal re-equilibrated with the Earth's silicate mantle, extracting siderophile ('iron-loving') elements into the Earth's iron-rich core. The current composition of the mantle indicates that much of the re-equilibration took place in a deep (> 400 km) molten silicate layer, or 'magma ocean', and that conditions became more oxidizing with time as the Earth grew. The high-pressure nature of the core-forming process led to the Earth's core being richer in low-atomic-number elements, notably silicon and possibly oxygen, than the cores of the smaller planetesimal building blocks."

Additional Sources: Macquarie University, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, North Ryde, New South Wales 2109, Australia and University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Queen's Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK

And, in the "Quantum" world, never say never.

Hank Roth


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